The consolidated banking statistics (CBS) measure international banking activity from a nationality perspective, focusing on the country where the banking group's parent is headquartered.

While residence-based data such as the locational banking statistics indicate where positions are booked, they do not always identify where underlying decisions are made. This is because banking offices in one country may operate within a business model decided by the group's controlling parent, which may be headquartered in another country. The CBS capture the worldwide claims of banking groups based in reporting countries and exclude intragroup positions, similar to the consolidation approach followed by banking supervisors. The CBS provide several different measures of banking groups' country risk exposures, on either an immediate counterparty or a guarantor basis. The most appropriate exposure measure depends on the issue being analysed. The benchmark measure in the CBS is foreign claims, which capture credit to borrowers outside a banking group's home country.



Developments in latest data for the BIS international banking statistics and global liquidity indicators.


IBS reporting countries

Bank for International Settlements
Countries reporting the international banking statistics with the first quarter when data are available

Convention for country groupings

Bank for International Settlements
Country groupings used in BIS statistical commentaries and other BIS publications based on the country classification in the BIS Annual Economic Report.

Reporting Practices

Bank for International Settlements
The horizon over which reporting practices converge with these guidelines depends on the circumstances in each reporting country. To help users understand the comparability of data across reporting countries, the BIS compiles information about the reporting practices in each reporting country on an annual basis, based on input from reporting authorities.

Reporting institutions

Bank for International Settlements
Summary statistics of the number of financial institutions that report the locational banking statistics (LBS) through the reporting authorities in their respective jurisdictions.

Breaks in Series

Breaks in series may arise from: changes in the population of reporting institutions, including the addition of new reporting countries; changes in reporting practices; or methodological improvements.

Latest revisions and breaks

  • Countries with data carried forward from previous quarters
  • Significant revisions and breaks of the consolidated banking statistics are explained.

Research and publications

The geography of dollar funding of non-US banks

Where do non-US banks obtain the funding for the large amount of US dollars they lend? Traditionally, their branches and subsidiaries in the United States were a major source of dollar funding, but the role of these affiliates has declined. Instead, dollars are increasingly raised in the home country. Where dollar funding is raised, however, is distinct from the location of the funding provider, as cross-border liabilities play a large role. In aggregate, a larger share of dollar funding is provided by US residents than is raised at foreign banks' US branches and subsidiaries. In the light of these facts, we discuss potential challenges related to the current geography of dollar funding. ...

FX swaps and forwards: missing global debt?

What would balance sheets look like if the borrowing through FX swaps and forwards were recorded on-balance sheet, as the functionally equivalent repo debt is? We combine various data sources to estimate the size, distribution and use of this "missing" debt and to begin to assess its implications for financial stability. A key finding is that non-banks outside the United States owe large sums of dollars off-balance sheet through these instruments. The total is of a size similar to, and probably exceeding, the $10.7 trillion of on-balance sheet dollar debt. Even when this debt is used to ...

Covered interest parity lost: understanding the cross-currency basis

Covered interest parity verges on a physical law in international finance. And yet it has been systematically violated since the Great Financial Crisis. Especially puzzling have been the violations since 2014, even once banks had strengthened their balance sheets and regained easy access to funding. We offer a framework to think about these violations, stressing the ...

Global dollar credit: links to US monetary policy and leverage

Banks and bond investors have extended $9 trillion of US dollar credit to non-bank borrowers outside the United States. This has relevance for the discussion of global liquidity and global monetary policy transmission. This paper contributes to this policy discussion by analysing the links between US monetary policy, including unconventional monetary policy, leverage and flows into bond funds, on the one hand, and dollar credit extended to non-US borrowers, on the other. We find that prior to the crisis, banks drew on low funding rates and low-cost leverage to extend dollar credit to non-US orrowers. After the Federal Reserve announced its large-scale bond purchases in 2008, however, bond investors responded to compressed long-term rates by buying dollar bonds from non-US borrowers. The balance of dollar credit transmission has shifted from global banks to global bond investors.

Emerging markets' reliance on foreign bank credit

This article examines the importance of foreign banks in the provision of credit to emerging market borrowers. It documents this along two dimensions: the share of total credit provided and the concentration of claims from different foreign banking systems. The share of credit from foreign banks in total credit to emerging market economies has fallen since the Great Financial Crisis, but still stands at 15-20% on average, with the remainder provided by domestic banks or non-bank creditors. ...

Following the imprint of the ECB's asset purchase programme on global bond and deposit flows

We trace the imprint of the ECB's expanded asset purchase programme (APP) on international bond portfolios and euro-denominated deposits. Our analysis suggests that non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) located outside the euro area sold large volumes of euro area government bonds and kept a substantial fraction of the proceeds as euro-denominated deposits, primarily in UK-resident banks. ...

The growing footprint of EME banks in the international banking system

This special feature explores the role of banks from emerging market economies (EMEs) in global banking. Over the past decade, the cross-border activity of EME banks has been growing at a faster pace than that of banks from advanced economies. This has been largely driven by increasing EME-to-EME interlinkages, which often make up more than half of EMEs' cross-border borrowing. EME banks make use of their global networks of affiliates abroad for the majority of their cross-border lending to other EMEs. In the cross-border interbank market, EMEs with more developed banking systems tend to be net recipients of funds, whereas EMEs with less developed ones tend to be net providers. ...

Dollar credit to emerging market economies

We profile the US dollar debt incurred by borrowers in a dozen prominent emerging market economies (EMEs). These countries account for the bulk of total US dollar debt owed by EMEs. We measure the dollar borrowing of non-banks resident in these economies as well as that of their affiliates offshore, and relate these items to commonly used debt measures. We also discuss the limitations of our data. These data fail to ...

Rapid credit growth and international credit: challenges for Asia

Very low interest rates in major currencies have raised concerns over international credit flows to robustly growing economies in Asia. This paper examines three components of international credit and highlights several of the policy challenges that arise in constraining such credit. Our empirical findings suggest that international credit enables domestic credit booms in emerging markets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that higher levels of international credit on the eve of a crisis are associated with larger subsequent contractions in overall credit and real output. In Asia today, international credit generally is small in relation to overall credit - as was not the case before the Asian crisis. So even though dollar credit is growing very rapidly in some Asian economies, its contribution to overall credit growth has been modest outside the more dollarised economies of Asia.

Global credit and domestic credit booms

US dollar credit is growing quickly outside the United States, especially in Asia, and in some economies it has outpaced overall credit growth. Cross-border sources of credit bear watching in view of their record of outgrowing overall credit in credit booms. Foreign currency and cross-border sources of credit raise policy issues.

The outsize role of cross-border financial centres

Financial centres that cater predominantly to non-residents account for an outsize share of cross-border financial activity. These so-called cross-border financial centres are typically located in small economies, in contrast to global financial centres located in large economies. Economies of scale and scope benefit global centres, but physical distance works against the tendency of financial activity to concentrate. So do regulation and taxation, which have set cross-border financial centres apart and propelled their rise. At the same time, these centres pose challenges to regulatory consistency across countries and complicate the analysis of capital flows.

Global banks' local presence: a new lens

In this feature, the authors examine a new dataset on global banks' foreign branches and subsidiaries. They find that branches, which facilitate especially international corporate banking, have grown relative to locally focused subsidiaries. Branches are riskier for host countries, and authorities, particularly in advanced economies, seem to have tightened control over them. 

The resilience of banks' international operations

This feature explores the resilience of banks' balance sheets after the 2008-09 financial crisis through the lens of a unique global data set crossing bank nationality and host country. We start by documenting post-crisis changes in the structure of BIS reporting banks' global operations across bank nationalities. We then zero in on the funding mix of banks' foreign affiliates (branches and subsidiaries) on the eve of the crisis, and how it ...

Non-US banks' claims on the Federal Reserve

Non-US banks' affiliates in the United States took on about half of the claims on the Fed that it created to pay for its large-scale bond purchases. They did so largely through uninsured branches that were not subject a new FDIC charge on wholesale funding payable by US-chartered banks.

Concentration in cross-border banking

Cross-border bank credit is dominated by a small number of very sizeable links between banks in one country and borrowers in another. The largest-sized cross-border banking links are mainly between major advanced economies. Concentration increased up until the Great Financial Crisis (GFC) and has abated only slightly since. It is higher for interbank credit than for credit to the non-bank sector. Despite the substantial decline in interbank credit in the aftermath of the GFC, concentration in the interbank segment has remained high. ...

Risk transfers in international banking

Credit risk transfers shift a bank's country exposures from one counterparty country to another. Risk transfer patterns can shed light on how creditor banking systems assess and manage credit risks across counterparty countries. These patterns are closely linked to the business models and international footprint of global banks and corporates. Global banks have taken on more credit risks vis-à-vis some major emerging market economies - in particular in Asia. This points both to the enlarged international footprint of corporates and banks from these countries, and to the ...

Recent enhancements to the BIS statistics

The BIS regularly seeks to enhance its statistical offerings to support monetary and financial stability analysis, in close coordination with central banks and other national authorities and international organisations. The exposure of economies to foreign currency risk is one potential source of vulnerability that has received increased attention in recent years, and the relevant data gaps are being addressed in the second phase of the Data Gaps Initiative (DGI) endorsed by the G20 (BIS-FSB-IMF (2015), FSB-IMF (2017)). Concurrently with this issue of the Quarterly Review, the BIS is expanding the data it publishes on exchange rates, on the currency composition of cross-border positions and on ...

Recent enhancements to the BIS statistics

The BIS has been enhancing its statistical offering to support monetary and financial stability analysis, in close coordination with central banks and international organisations. Some of this work has been undertaken in the context of the Data Gaps Initiative (DGI) endorsed by the G20. In the current issue of the Quarterly Review, the BIS is introducing new statistics in the following areas: - Detailed locational banking statistics shedding further light on the geography of international banking, specifically the claims and liabilities of banks in each ...

Assessing global liquidity

Global liquidity has become a key focus of international policy debates over recent years. The concept of global liquidity, however continues to be used in a variety of ways and this ambiguity can lead to potentially undesirable policy responses. This feature attempts to further the understanding of the global liquidity concept, its measurement and policy implications. It argues that policy responses to global liquidity call for a consistent framework that considers all phases of global liquidity cycles, countering both surges and shortages.


Data are released every quarter. You can find the target publication dates and the latest data reference period in the Statistics release calendar.

The consolidated banking statistics are collected under the auspices of the Committee on the Global Financial System and in cooperation with the central banks and other national authorities worldwide. The data are reported to the BIS at a country- rather than individual bank- level. Reporting banks submit data to an official authority in their country, usually the central bank, which then aggregates the data and submits country-level aggregates to the BIS for global aggregations, analysis and publication.

Participating jurisdictions are listed in the following link: Reporting countries.

The CBS comprise two data sets, which use different criteria to identify the obligor. The CBS on an immediate counterparty basis (CBS/I) identify the obligor as the direct party to a contract. The CBS on a guarantor basis (CBS/G) identify the obligor as the ultimate party to a contract, ie the obligor that is contractually bound to the contract after taking into account risk transfers such as parent or third-party guarantees, collateral and other risk mitigants.

For example, suppose that a German bank extends a loan to the Mexican subsidiary of a US corporate and that the loan is guaranteed by the US corporate parent. The loan would be reported as a claim of German banks on Mexico on an immediate counterparty basis and as a claim of German banks on the United States on a guarantor basis.

You can view Table B4 (consolidated banking statistics) and select a counterparty country (borrower country), for example the United States. The left-hand column of B4 shows a list of banking systems that lend to this country.

In our example, the first column (“Total”) in the section “Claims on an immediate counterparty basis” captures lending to a borrower that resides in the United States. The first column (“Total”) in the section “Claims on a guarantor basis” captures lending to a borrower in any country that is guaranteed by an entity that resides in the United States.

The most important difference between the LBS and the CBS is the level of consolidation by reporting banks. The LBS are compiled on an unconsolidated basis, whereby the positions (including intragroup positions) of all banks located in a particular reporting country are aggregated following balance of payments principles. By contrast, the CBS are compiled on a consolidated group basis, and thus track the worldwide consolidated positions (excluding intragroup positions) of banks with a controlling parent in a particular reporting country.

Reporting authorities may submit revised data, including revised confidentiality codes, at any time during a quarter. Revisions will be incorporated in the next scheduled publication as listed in the Statistics release calendar.