Bilateral exchange rates
The bilateral exchange rate data set contains long time series on US dollar nominal exchange rates. They record the nominal value of one US dollar (USD) relative to a given currency. A decrease (increase) indicates an appreciation (depreciation) of the currency against the USD.
The data set features daily series for around 80 economies. Most daily series start around 1970, while 14 currencies have data going back to 1950. The data set also includes monthly, quarterly and annual series which cover approximately 190 economies. These series typically feature longer time spans than the daily series and start around 1957.
The time series are calculated as end-of-period or averages over daily data. The data set also includes long historical series, which are backdated with comparable low-frequency historical data.
The exchange rates series are compiled combining several sources, ensuring the highest possible level of consistency. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the primary source of daily data for the most recent periods, complemented by data from the US Federal Reserve. Data are also sourced from other BIS member central banks for periods not covered by the ECB or the Federal Reserve. The Deutsche Bundesbank and the International Monetary Fund (International Financial Statistics) are the main sources of historical data.
This data set serves as the input for calculating the BIS effective exchange rates and is also used for foreign exchange conversion into US dollars in other BIS data sets.
Research and publications
The BIS regularly seeks to enhance its statistical offerings to support monetary and financial stability analysis, in close coordination with central banks and other national authorities and international organisations. The exposure of economies to foreign currency risk is one potential source of vulnerability that has received increased attention in recent years, and the relevant data gaps are being addressed in the second phase of the Data Gaps Initiative (DGI) endorsed by the G20 (BIS-FSB-IMF (2015), FSB-IMF (2017)). Concurrently with this issue of the Quarterly Review, the BIS is expanding the data it publishes on exchange rates, on the currency composition of cross-border positions and on ...
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the primary source for daily data for the most recent periods, with data from the US Federal Reserve as a complement. Other BIS member central banks also provide data for missing periods. The Deutsche Bundesbank and the International Monetary Fund's International Financial Statistics, are key sources for historical data. For an overview of the sources for each currency and period, see "Recent enhancements to the BIS statistics", BIS Quarterly Review, September 2017.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the primary source for daily data for the most recent periods, with data from the US Federal Reserve as a complement. Exchange rates are measured at 13:15 GMT by the ECB and 17:00 GMT by the Federal Reserve. A large number of currencies are sourced from these two providers, which maximises comparability across countries in terms of quotation time and market. Data are taken from other BIS member central banks for periods for which no data from the ECB or the Federal Reserve are available.
For countries with legacy currencies, data are back-calculated with break adjustments. For euro area member countries, rates are calculated as the legacy currency/USD exchange rate, divided by the fixed irrevocable euro conversion rate before the adoption of the euro. For more details, see "Recent enhancements to the BIS statistics", BIS Quarterly Review, September 2017.